Thursday, February 24, 2011


Joe Keller
Nearing Sixty
"A heavy man of [calm] mind and build, a business man these many years, but with the imprint of the machine-shop worker and boss still upon him. When he reads, when he speaks, when he listens, it is with terrible concentration of the uneducated man for whom there is still wonder in many commonly known things, a man whose judgments must be dredged out of experience and a peasant-like common sense. A man among men." (Act One: Miller 5)
  • Husband of Kate
  •  Father of Chris and Larry
  • A family man whose world does not extend beyond the borders of his front yard or the gate around his factory
  • He is considerably uneducated, but fends off of knowledge gain through experience and age (5)
  • He is very sympathetic, especially when concerning family. (12-13)  
  •  He has a talent for ignoring things. (14)
  • He is not a greedy, but rather a good-natured and loving man of little education, whose perspective on his world stems from a devotion to his family and an education in a society that encourages generally antisocial behavior
  • American rugged individualism alienated Keller who’s past misdeeds haunt the future of his family.

Joe Keller’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  • Joe Keller appears to be the man within the play whom others come to either visit him or ask of his advice and outlook. Throughout the description displayed at the beginning of the play, Joe seems to play a big part during the drama. (5-15)
  • Before this chunk of Joe Keller’s life was actually scripted, he had owned a business/factory with Ann Deever’s father, Steve. Together, during the war, they produced cylinder heads for airplanes used in war called, P-40s. The day came when the two had received faulty parts, with so-called “hairline cracks”.  Joe had told Steve that he was unable to make it to work that day to decide about what they should do with the parts, due to an illness. But, instead he had told Steve to go ahead, patch them up and ship them out. He, (Joe) said that if they were to get busted, he would take any blame and reasonability that came along with this decision. (26-28; 46)
  • Nonetheless, they were caught and Joe stated that he was indeed innocent and did not take any responsibility for his action, (in which he is/was contradicting what he had stated upon earlier in the play). The faulty parts had caused numerous planes to crash, killing twenty-one pilots, possibly the death/disappearance of Joe’s own son Larry, due to the fact that he was a pilot.
  • In the end, everyone is aware of Joe’s decision to go ahead and ship the faulty parts, making him guilty and therefore to escape the guilt of his action, to end his life. (68-69)

Kate Keller
In her early fifties
"A woman of uncontrolled inspirations, and an overwhelming capacity for love."
  •  Wife of Joe Keller
  •  Mother of Chris and Larry
  • Still believes that her son Larry is alive even after three years. There are times when she walks around at night dreaming and thinking of Larry. (p. 18).
  • Kate cannot abandon the memory of her son Larry, who was lost in the war and is unable to cope with the loss of her own child.
  •  Kate becomes obsessed with her idea that Larry is still alive out there, in which she makes herself sick while also holding back her other son, Chris, from living his life completely as a result of not wanting to lose him.
  •  Her fantasies about Larry are constructed from a sense of self-preservation, and the flimsy basis for her hopes is threatened any time someone who loved Larry intimates that he or she may not share Kate's confidence in his return.

 Kate Keller’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  •  Kate wants to believe that Ann Deever still thinks of her son Larry. But, when she begins to sense a connection between her other son Chris and Ann, she becomes angry. She then becomes a “human obstacle” that is in the way of the marriage of Chris and Ann. (17-25; Continued throughout the play)
  •  Kate attempts to get rid of Ann by making her go back home, in hope for the return of Larry, so that they can get married, instead of Chris and Ann. Kate believes than Ann is “Larry’s girl”.
  •  Kate had taken on the burden of Joe’s secret with the faulty parts, and on an accident lets out that Joe had never been sick. Also, that he used his “illness” as an excuse for not helping Steve make a decision upon the faulty plane parts. (55; Continued throughout the play)

Larry Keller
Age Not Mentioned
Larry Keller is not a physical character that acts upon onstage, but he is mentioned quite frequently throughout the play.
  • Son of Joe and Kate Keller
  • Brother of Chris Keller
  • Before he had went of to war as a plane pilot, Larry planned to marry Ann Deever

 Larry Keller’s Connection To, All My Sons:
  • Larry disappeared when he was at war and while his brother and father are trying to move on, his mother still believes that he is alive.
  • One day when Ann Deever went over to visit the Keller’s she brought over the suicide letter that she had received from Larry the day he had disappeared.
  • Larry is constantly compared to Chris throughout the play, seemingly for the purpose of better defining the character of Chris, but in the end we learn that Larry's own character had quite an effect on the story.
  •  Larry is portrayed by his father as the more sensible and practical of his sons, the one with a head for business who would understand his father's arguments.
  • Larry, not Chris, possessed the stronger sense of honor and connectedness, and Larry sacrificed himself in penance for his father's misdeeds.

Chris Keller
"Like his father, solidly built, a listener. A man capable of immense affection and loyalty."
  • Son of Joe and Kate Keller (Second Oldest)
  • Brother of Larry Keller
  •  Cautious and reserved
  • Seeks to marry Ann Deever (Ann’s FiancĂ©)
  •  Family man and devoted to his parents
  • He holds his family together after the disappearance of Larry
  •  Chris likes to read the book section in the paper, but never buys a physical book.    
  •  He seems to get annoyed pretty quickly. (14)
  • Chris is quite a considerate young man, but seems to have lost a lot because of it. He gets irritated because he constantly has to change to fit under the radar of most people. (14-15)
  •  Chris works at his father’s factory/business. He has a lot of money, but he feels guilty about having the money, because it is from his father.
  •  He is uncomfortable with the success his father's business found during the war, when so many of his comrades died pointlessly. He redirects his discomfort into idealism and an attitude of social awareness that is foreign to his family environment.

 Chris Keller’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  •  Chris threatens to leave the business; if his father does not help both he and Ann pursue their marriage plans. Chris truly longs for his mother’s approval of the marriage and insists on marrying Ann. But, Kate holds this decision back from Chris, due to the fact that she still believes that Larry is still alive, and states that Larry is the one for Kate. (13-15)
  • Chris also believes that his father is not the one to blame for the faulty plane parts. (46-47)

Steve Deever
Age not mentioned
"That frightened mouse that'd never buy a shirt without somebody along..." 
  • Steve is described as a shy, timid man. He is Small and easily frightened.
  • Father of George and Ann Deever
  • He once worked for Joe Keller, but the was then imprisoned after sending out faulty cylinder heads to the military. 

Steve Deever’s Connection To, All My Sons:
  • As a worker for Joe Keller, Steve was instructed to patch up and ship out the faulty plane parts even though he wanted Joe to check them first.  Joe also told him that if they were to get caught with this decision that he (Joe) would take the blame. But, it is actually Steve he gets put in jail as Joe holds back on his promise, while Steve is in his position and Joe is in Steve’s.  His son George describes his father as a frightened mouse that had no choice but to ship out those parts, due to their demand within the war. (28; 46-47)

Ann Deever
"Gentle but despite herself capable of holding fast to what she knows." 
  • Sister of George Deever
  •  Larry's girl" (used to date Larry before he disappeared) 
  • FiancĂ© of Chris
  • A beautiful young woman
  • She is an honest, down-to-earth girl, and she is emboldened by the strength of certain of her convictions
  • Quite sensitive (26)
  • Does not talk to her father anymore after his imprisonment
  •  Planned to marry Larry Keller before he went off to war
  •  Ann’s father was Joe Keller's business partner during the war and was the one who shipped the faulty parts after Joe told him so.
  • After Larry disappeared and her father was put in prison for the faulty parts, she moves to New York with her mother and brother.
  • Chris proposes to Ann and she says yes, but her brother George and Kate Keller are against it.
  • Ann shows the Keller family the suicide letter she got from Larry the day he disappeared.

Ann Deever’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  • Ann and Chris have made it clear to all that they both wish to marry each other. Ann refuses to return to her hometown of New York to consult with her father on this decision, after what had occurred with the faulty plane parts. (45)

George Deever
"A paler man, now on the edge of his self-restraint. He speaks quietly, as though afraid to find himself screaming."
  •  Brother of Ann Deever
  •  Practices as a lawyer
  • George is upset because of what happened to his father Steve. 
  •  He dives into things too quickly; he's hasty. (p. 45).
  •  George is very angry that his sister Ann is planning to marry Chris because he believes that Joe Keller is guilty and the Keller family will hurt them.

 George Deever’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  •  His arrival in the second act is a catalyst for a situation that was on edge from long-established tensions. His disdain is for the crime, not for the man, and now that he has been newly convinced of his father's innocence (after visiting him and hearing his side of the story), he is here to rescue his sister from entering the family of the man he believes is actually guilty. (42-45)
  •  George is able to release the truth from inside of Joe Keller, to admit that he was the one that was indeed guilty for the faulty plane parts. (42-45)

Doctor Jim Bayliss
Nearing Forty
"A wry self-controlled man, an easy talker, but with a wisp of sadness that clings even to his self-effacing humor."
  • Husband of Sue Bayliss
  • Neighbor of the Keller Family (Where he spends a lot of time at)
  • His job consists of an in home doctor
  •  He is a very practical and realistic man
  • He is one who believes in the duty of one man to help another, but he at the same time acknowledges a man's responsibility to his family.

Dr. Jim Bayliss’ Connection to, All My Sons:
  • When Joe Keller finally admits that he was responsible for the shipping of the faulty parts, Dr. Jim Bayliss then reveals to Kate Keller that he knew of Joe's guilt for a long time, but never said anything. (61)
  •  He once left his wife to do medical research, but he eventually went home, putting his responsibility to his family ahead of his responsibility to the world.
  • He is constantly being nagged by his wife about house calls that he has to do which leads to him telling Chris about sacrifice and how he is truly unhappy.

Sue Bayliss
Nearing Forty
"An overweight woman who fears it." 
  • Wife of Dr. Jim Bayliss
  • She is very realistic and was a former nurse
  • She is also serious, stern and a very quirky lady
  • Sue Bayliss is always calling and nagging her husband, Jim to go to people's houses to treat them.
  •  She doesn't like the Keller family because she believes that they “act” as a “perfect family” which they aren’t, which she then thinks makes she and her family look bad.

 Sue Bayliss’ Connection to, All My Sons:
  • Sue does not like Chris Keller; in addition she does not completely trust his father Joe Keller. She believes that Chris is way too idealistic and brings her husband Jim down. As well as, she does not trust Joe because he was the person who had gotten Steve Deever locked up in jail due to the faulty parts and deaths of the pilots. (37-39)

Frank Lubey
Thirty-Two, but balding
"A pleasant, opinionated man, uncertain of himself, with a tendency toward peevishness when crossed, but always wanting it pleasant and neighborly."
  • Husband of Lydia Lubey
  •  Neighbor of the Keller Family
  •  Frank had never entered the war because he was a year older than the draft, this lead him to pursue his interest in astrology.

Frank Lubey’s Connection to, All My Sons:
  •  He's has the mind to believe; he has been making a horoscope about Larry upon the request of Kate, to find out his “favorable day” to see if he is still alive. (6-7)
  •  Both his assumptions and thoughts along with Kate Keller’s convinced both them and us as readers that Larry was still alive, though he was not. (55-56)

Lydia Lubey
"She is a robust, laughing girl..."
  • Wife of Frank Lubey
  • Lydia is carefree
  • Former sweetheart of George Deever, but did not wait for him to return from war and married Frank
  • She is a shy, gentle, and kind young woman (9)

Lydia Lubey’s Connection To, All My Sons:
  •  Lydia makes George wistful about the simpler life he could have had, if he had not left home for the greater world of New York.
  • She has three children with Frank, and according to Joe Keller it was an honor to have sons, in which Lydia has three.

Just About Eight
“He's curious, determined, skeptical, and assertive, as is any other kid” (11-12)
  • Young neighborhood boy
  •   Neighbor of the Keller’s
  •  Extremely playful, likes to play cops and detectives with Joe Keller, to Kate’s extent of play

Bert’s Connection To, All My Sons:
  •   Joe Keller tells Bert that he is the police officer of the town which Kate has a problem with, due to the fact that she doesn't like that Joe continues to talk about his jail and court deal after everything that had occurred with the faulty part case.
  • Joe Keller has allowed Bert and the other children to get the story of his jail time wrong and to believe that he is a chief of police with a jail in his basement. Mother is made very anxious by these games.
  •  Bert’s role in the play was used to preserve his innocence of Joe’s actions with the faulty parts, as well as to convince those that Keller did not do anything wrong.


Chris: "I've been a good son too long, a good sucker. I'm through with it." (Act 1: Line 215: Miller 15)

As Chris Keller says this to his father Joe Keller, he pronounces in an apparent way that he would like to break free from being a loyal son and family member and longs to become his own self. Chris shows that throughout most of his life he has done everything to please his family, but now he feels as though he is mature and ready enough to do things in order to please himself. As Chris is becoming older, he is tired of his family holding him back from things that he wishes to do such as getting married and starting a family of his own, as well as adventuring out to find things that he likes to do. Chris does not wish to disappoint his parents, because he knows how important the moral of family is to his father. However, after finding out what his dad did, Chris is so disturbed at what his father had done, that all he wishes to do is leave home and start fresh. Loyalty, which has always been apart of Chris himself, has finally shown itself as an obstacle that is in the way of Chris and his personal happiness.

Keller: I'm askin' you. What am I, a stranger? I thought I had a family here. What happened to my family? (Act 3: Line 45: Miller 62)
After Joe Keller has had an argument with his son Chris, over his decision with the plane parts he asks his wife Kate the question: What happened to my family? As he is speaking with Kate, she feels somewhat afraid that Chris will not return home, after he realized what his father had done. Joe who is very family oriented believes that no matter what situation or wrongdoing that either yourself or a family has overcome or has done, that the will be on your side no matter what. He also is a firm believer that family will never get mad at you for anything and will always be there to help you get through rough times. There are though, times, that someone family member or just even close friend does something that is so morally wrong, that everyone and even their own family turns against them because they did not believe that it was right. An example would be when Chris found out about what his father had done with the faulty parts and told him that he was extremely disappointed in him and wanted to move away. Joe was dumbfounded to see Chris leave after how loyal he was to the family, and especially astonished when his family did not stick with him throughout his tough time leaving him wondering exactly “happened to his family” and why they were falling apart; while the answer was right in front of him, himself and his actions.
Keller: "There's nothing he could do that I wouldn't forgive. Because he's my son. Because I'm his father and he's my son." (Act 3: Line 52: Miller 63)

This quote displays another of Joe Keller’s views on family. After reading this quote in the play, as a reader I was told by Joe that there would be nothing at all, that can come between both himself, his sons, and especially his family, that he would not forgive them for. Joe shows us his firm belief that forgiveness is a must in any situation no matter how minor or major the circumstances may be. By saying that he would forgive his son, because he is his son, shows that Joe would like the same attitude and beliefs as displayed by him also shown by his son Chris in return. Joe knows deep down that he is truly guilty, but he believes that he did the right thing for his family, so that deserves his family's forgiveness. But in the way he views his family and family in general, he seems to show that family is not only connected through relationships but, also by keeping tight and picking those up when the fall, make mistakes and need to be forgiven. That members in a family are codependent upon on another through their actions, and beliefs.

"Keller: [...] A father is a father" (Act 2: Line 162-166: Miller 42)

Here, Joe Keller is trying to make Annie realize that her father is her father, and even though Annie is very upset with her father because of what he did, he is a part of her family, but more importantly, her life. The main moral displayed throughout this short, but meaningful quote, is that you cannot pick your family, so whatever you are given, you must make the best out of it. All family members do bicker with each other every once in a while, but things should never become as serious as never wanting to talk to that certain person ever again. Family is always there for you no matter what, they know the most about you and they know things that other people don’t know about you, they will always be with you both physically and eventually spiritually from birth to death and then eventually when you reunite in the afterlife. Even though Ann does not want to deal with her father ever again, Joe wants her to recognize that family is the most important thing that you can have in the world. You will always have your family no matter where you go, because as the saying goes, “you’ll always find your way back home”, the place where you gain as much love, support, and forgiveness from the people in which you love. 


Chris: "Everything was being destroyed, see, but it seemed to me that one new thing was made. A kind of...responsibility. Man for man"(Miller 31)

In this quote, you can tell that Chris had the up most respect for all of the soldiers that he was at war with because they all took responsibility for one another and for another’s actions. He completely admires this responsibility because the soldiers were all willing to risk their lives for one another and sacrifice themselves, due to a special connection they had with each other. These actions displayed by the soldiers move Chris, because he is able to see what it is actually like for people to take upon responsibility for one another. Due to the situation between his father and Ann’s father, Joe did not follow through with his promise of taking any extra baggage and shame that went along with sending out the faulty parts, instead no one takes responsibility and the wrong man suffers the consequences. But, the soldiers whom he fought with were so courageous that they were willing to give a life for each other while fighting for freedom, while, as his father was unwilling to take the shame of killing men to keep his family together.

Chris: "I felt wrong to be alive, to open the bank book, to drive the new car, to see the new refrigerator. I mean you can take those things out of a war, but when you drive that car you've got to know that it came out of the love a man can have for a man, you've got to be a little better because of that." (Miller 31)

This quote shows how Chris’ extreme guilt from leaving the war. He believes that he should have been one to die, not others, because of the great life that he is living back home. While those whom are still in war are suffering and taking responsibility for the actions of others and died due to them. A lot of Chris’ fortune has come from working in his father’s factory, which is the place where the faulty parts had come from and killed numerous men. Chris also feels guilty because he feels as though he should be the one taking the responsibility from his father’s action, because he was one to face war up close and can understand how much responsibility and courage it takes to fight and die for one another.

Sue: "Who is he to ruin a man's life? Everyone knows Joe pulled a fast one to get out of jail"(Miller 38)

Sue Bayliss is a true believer that Joe was indeed responsible for the deaths of the soldiers and the crashes of the airplanes. She feels as though he should be suffering the consequences just like Steve is, being in jail, if that she believes, that Joe should be the only one in jail due to it being his decision to ship the parts, while as Steve had no choice but to do so. If Joe were anything like the man earlier in the play, who said he was going to take full and complete responsibility if when the sent the faulty parts was to backfire, he would be the jail and would probably feel better about himself knowing that he did what he said he was to do, face the consequences and took the responsibility upon his family by protecting them, like the family oriented man he is.

"George: [...] Dad was afraid. He wanted Joe there if he was going to do it. But Joe can't come down . . . he's sick. Sick! He suddenly gets the flu! Suddenly! But he promised to take responsibility." (Miller 46)

Here, Chris and George are talking about what they exactly believe happened with the faulty plane parts. Steve Deever ended up in jail due to the failed responsibility of his co-worker Joe. Joe had promised to take responsibility for the parts if they were to get caught, but he didn't. He faked being sick so he didn't have to own up to anything. This was wrong of him because he made a promise and then broke it. George is upset because all himself sticks his father in prison and Joe got a “free pass”, but he should have taken complete responsibility for his actions and come clean about the parts and his decision to ship them due to the sake of the business and his family. 

The American Dream

Frank: "That boy's going to be a real doctor; he's smart. [...] It's an honorable profession." (Act 1: Miller 8)

The American Dream is something that people long for to be honored in society as great achiever or as someone who has changed the society in someway either big or small. But the main part about The American Dream is the honor and respect that come along with it. In this quote it is obvious that Frank Lubey believes that it is very important to be respected in America, especially as a person and worker. America is the land of opportunity, in which many immigrate to in order to find new opportunities or to even start fresh here or start of the family in America. To be respected by society, in America, is something that all Americans want, long and work at. In which Frank believes that it is something that everyone should aspire and work for. Here you are able to be who ever or whatever you like, without much judgment, which is something that is not available in many countries, hence why many immigrate here. Because without respect everything and everyone would be able to be a doctor and if you were either the best or worst, you would be treated the same.

Chris: "I want a family, I want some kids, I want to build something I can give myself to." (Act 1: Miller 15)

Chris once he is able to break free from his parents longs to live The American Dream. He would love to start a family and build his own life the way he wants, not the way that his parents want him to. One of the most important rights in America that we have unlike other countries is freedom. With this right we are able to make more choices on our own without government interference and they way we would like, but with limits. Most people in America dream about one day having a family of their own and being able to support that family with their skills and the things that they build on their own. This is exactly what Chris wants and although his parents have held him back, through the story he is ready to move on and get his American Dream by marrying Ann and having children with her. Chris is extremely passionate about doing things in his own and would love to make his own choices, as he is an adult. The ideal American would have a family, kids, and a job that they are passionate about and supports their family. Most, immigrate to America to be free and make the choices that they want, in order to live their lives in the style that they choose, which is basically in a nutshell The American Dream; to be free and make decisions and live life your way.
"Keller: We'll talk about it. I'm going to build you a house, stone, with a driveway from the road. I want you to spread out, Chris, I want you to use what I made for you . . . (He is close to him now.) . . . I mean, with joy, Chris, without shame . . . with joy." (Miller 33)

Joe Keller would love for his son Chris to enjoy what America has to offer on his, but of course with some help from his father. He would love for Chris to endure his life without any hardships or obstacles like he had to. A dream of Joe’s of for the factory to run both smoothly and successfully with Chris, but this is not Chris’ American Dream, it’s his father’s. Joe enjoys likes the idea of giving his boy everything he never had, this is the perfect example of the American Dream, which many people do in order to make the lives of the children the best they can be, so that they can pass their views and ethics upon to the next generation. However, Chris would like to be free from what his father wants and would love to do what he wants most to marry Ann and start a family, this is his American Dream.

"Chris: Yes. I like it an hour a day. If I have to grub for money all day long at least at evening I want it beautiful. I want a family, I want some kids, and I want to build something I can give myself to. (Act 1: Miller 15)

Chris begins to tell his father about his dream of marrying Ann and moving away to start a family of their own. Joe is upset because his dream for Chris was to run the family business, but Chris thought otherwise. Chris longs to create a life of his own, something that he can call “his”. This is the American Dream because Chris, like many other Americans, wants to leave home and create a life of their own. Chris shows that he is very confident in is decision to marry Ann, because he will make it happen no matter what it takes, also showing the American Dream by those who want change doing anything that it takes to get it. 


"Frank: The trouble with you is, you don't believe in anything.
Jim: And your trouble is that you believe in anything." (Act 1: Miller 8)

Here Frank Lubey and Dr. Jim Bayliss are talking about Lubey’s work with his newfound passion astrology relating to Larry’s horoscope. Horoscopes are most definitely based off the ideas of ethics and what one believes morally right within their society. Kate Keller, who asked Lubey to work on Larry’s (her son’s) horoscope was done in order to find out his “favorable day” to see if he was still alive out in the war. Kate believes that he is and also believes that horoscopes are morally and ethically right and should be used more often. But her husband Joe believes that astrology and horoscopes are things are unethical. He believes that they are waste of time and don't exist and Frank is studying a whole bunch of untrue and useless ideas. This display of actions shows to men that believe in two different ethical ways.

"Keller. [...] She thinks he's coming back, Chris. You marry that girl and you're pronouncing him dead. Now what's going to happen to Mother? Do you know? I don't!" (Act 1: Miller 15)

This quote is between a conversation between Chris and Joe Keller. Before Larry went off to war, he was had plans to marry Ann Deever. Kate Keller, Larry’s mom believes that he is still alive out there and Ann should just keep waiting for his return so that they can pursue their marriage. But, since he has been gone for three years, Chris, Joe Keller’s other son has built up a tight relationship with Ann. Chris and Ann wish to marry, but Kate does not approve and tries to keep the two as far way form each other as she can. Joe does believe that if the two were to marry, it would be unethical and unfair to Kate because of all of the hard work she has done trying to find out if Larry is still alive, but little does she know that Ann knows most definitely that he is not because she had received a suicide note from him on his favorable day.

"Chris. For me! - I was dying everyday and you were killing my boys and you did it for me? What the hell do you think I was thinking of, the Goddamn business? Is that as far as your mind can see, the business? What is that, the world - the business?" (Act 2: Line 257: Miller 59)

This quote is a true example of ethics shown in the story because Chris is questioning his father, Joe Keller's right to ship the faulty plane parts in order to support his family and business. Joe went through with his decision, because it was either live or die for his family, and because he is family oriented man he thought that his decision was best. Chris questioned his father, trying to get out of him why he had done such a thing if it were to the risk the lives of 120 innocent men. If it was only for the sake and importance of the business and making money, then why was it right to risk the lives of those of whom you consider your sons and family. Joe and Chris, even though they are father and son, share two completely divergent ethics. While Joe believed it was right to ship the parts in order to save his family, what he considered they most important thing in the world to him, Chris sees the situation completely different. Chris, however, thinks that if he was going to make a decision based upon keeping his family up and hurting/killing others that his choice cannot be defended either way. Joe’s decision brings up range of how far and how ethically someone can support their family, by either risking the lives of others or financially struggling for sometime. There are out there sides in society that can defend this issue either way, based upon how you view ethics.

Mother: " We rushed into it. Everybody was in such a hurry to bury him"
Chris: "The wind blew it down. What significance has that got?" (18)

Kate believes that when they placed a tree in memory of Larry, it happened all way too quickly. She thinks that everyone was in such a rush and before much thought went into the situation, they went ahead and placed the tree there when it should have been placed once they knew if Larry was alive or not. Chris ethically believed that the tree had blown down on purpose, trying to explain to his mother that it was truly a sign that his brother Larry in indeed dead and the act of tree falling symbolizes his death. During this conversation both Chris and Kate are displaying two completely different ethically and superstitious views on whether the tree was planted too early or if due to the tree falling was as sign of Larry’s death.